Plantation trees. IFAS Extension note SP242. Advances in tropical acacia research. Mating system of Racosperma auriculiforme in a seed production area in Zaire. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. ], [ed. Australian acacias for pulpwood. A. auriculiformis flowers are a source of bee forage and contribute to honey production (Moncur et al., 1991). As historically defined, Acacia (family Fabaceae, subfamily Mimosoideae) represented a cosmopolitan genus of 1200-1300 species contained in three subgenera: Acacia, Aculeiferum and Phyllodineae (Maslin, 1995). The leaf litter is reported to be allelopathic (EDDMapS, 2016). 35, 82-86; 6 ref, Marcar NE, Hussain RW, Arunin S, Beetson T, 1991. Edible mushrooms occur in plantations in Thailand and Vietnam. Forage tree legumes in tropical agriculture., 257-266; 28 ref, Sedgley M, Harbard J, Smith RMM, Wickneswari R, Griffin AR, 1992. Journal of Tropical Forestry, 8(2):173-178, Harwood CE, 1996. A.Cunn. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Tawau, Sabah, Malaysia, 1-4 July 1991. There is an average of 71,600 viable seeds/kg (Doran and Turnbull, 1997). Marcar N E, Ganesan S K, Field J, 1991. 51. auriculiformis is predominantly outcrossing (Moran et al., 1989; Ibrahim, 1991; Khasa et al., 1993) and exhibits marked genetic variation. Reports of this species becoming invasive relate to locations where A. auriculiformis was first introduced deliberately, after which the tree escaped cultivation. You can find the psychoactive substance in the tree’s stem bark, and it is used in traditional and folklore remedies. http://www.se-eppc.org/, Skelton DJ, 1987. Acacia auriculiformis: 5-MeO-DMT in stem bark; Acacia baileyana: 0.02% tryptamine and [[carboline|β-carbolines]], in the leaf, Tetrahydro; Acacia beauverdiana: Psychoactive Ash used in Pituri; Acacia berlandieri: DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine; Acacia catechu: DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark; Acacia caven: Psychoactive Its desirability as a wood/pulp tree, and its use for reforestation and as an ornamental make it a tree with a high risk of introduction. ex Benth., Acacia mangium Willd. 47 (1), 77-86. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/aje DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00920.x. Acacia auriculiformis: 5-MeO-DMT in stem bark: Acacia baileyana: 0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman: Acacia beauverdiana: Psychoactive Ash used in Pituri. A root rot fungus, Ganoderma sp., was observed to cause crown dieback and defoliation in A. auriculiformis plantations in parts of West Bengal, India (Barari, 1993). http://herbariodb.uprrp.edu/Bol/uprrp/Search, USDA-ARS, 2016. A. auriculiformis is a  tree that has been extensively introduced across the tropics. Coppicing of Acacia auriculiformis. Yogyakarta: Forest Tree Improvement Research and Development Institute, 9-15, Tan BC, Tan KS, 2002. 1975. Variation in seedling morphology of Acacia auriculiformis. It is one of 17 plant species named on a preliminary list of invasive alien species for Singapore (Tan and Tan, 2002). Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. Revision of extra-Australian species of Acacia - subg. nicotine: Acacia catechu: DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark Acacia caven: Psychoactive: Acacia chundra: DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark Acacia colei: DMT: Acacia complanata http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://www.best.bs/Invasive_plant_species.htm, http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html, http://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/TaxBrowser_Home, http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T19891902A19997222.en, http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/apex/f?p=185:3:0::NO, http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list, http://apps.kew.org/seedlist/SeedlistServlet, http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/WG/WG20900.pdf, http://explorer.natureserve.org/index.htm, http://www.hear.org/pier_v3.3/tongareport.htm, http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/acacia_auriculiformis.htm, http://herbariodb.uprrp.edu/Bol/uprrp/Search, http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl, http://www.worldagroforestrycentre.org/Sites/TreeDBS/AFT/AFT.htm, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. ©Maurice McDonald/CSIRO Forestry & Forest Products. auriculiformis wood has a high basic density and a calorific value of 4700-4900 kcal/kg, which make it ideal for firewood and charcoal. Part 2 - plantations. Invasion of A. auriculiformis is associated with changes in biodiversity. 1: 377 (1842). Variation was examined at 12 months for 28 provenances of A. auriculiformis in a trial in Malaysia. Overview of the generic status of Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae). In an experiment in Thailand, it continued growing under saline conditions ranging from 0.15 to 7.25 dS/m, in both wet and dry soils (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Encyclopedia of Life. CSIRO Land Research Series No. South-east Asia, Northern Australia and the Pacific. Japanese Agricultural Research Quarterly, 31:65-71, Keating WG, Bolza E, 1982. A. auriculiformis is related to A. polystachya , A. cincinnata. Arlington, Virginia, USA: NatureServe. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T19891902A19997222, http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T19891902A19997222.en, India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Udorn Thani, Thailand: Winrock International and FAO, 144-152, Yap SK, 1987. Domestication of lesser-known tropical tree species: The Australian experience. Auxiliary plants. Allelopathic; Competition - monopolizing resources; Competition - shading, Early Detection & Distribution Mapping System. 35:229-232; 3 ref, Maslin BR, 1995. In: Plants of Hawaii Reports, http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/acacia_auriculiformis.htm. 29, ECTF Symposium No. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). No. One of the most common uses of acacia is for its wood. In: Turnbull JW, ed. 18:1-24, Pedley L, 1978. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, World Agroforestry Centre, 2002. Muak-Lek: ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre Project, 2 pp, Ryan PA, 1994. ITE Symposium No. Advances in tropical acacia research. 189-194. Several countries have genetic improvement programmes that aim to produce better quality seed for future planting programmes. Introduced and cultivated on Tobi, Koror, Malakal, Ngercheu, Ngerkebesang and Peleliu Islands, Bahia coastal forests, Bahia interior forests, Serra do Mar coastal forests, Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Introduction of Acacia species to Peninsular Malaysia. Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); habit, forest tree form. A natural dye, used in the batik textile industry in India and Indonesia is also extracted from the bark (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016; PROTA, 2016). Multipurpose trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation. Allelopathic effects of invasive Acacia mangium on germination and growth of local paddy varieties. Invasive alien species in Singapore: a review. Makiling, Philippines. 8, 119-140, Gordon, D. R., 1998. Indian Forester, 119(9):760-761, Barari S, 1993. Stressed trees are particularly susceptible to attacks by insect pests. A. auriculiformis was recorded as host to Xystrocera festiva at two locations in south Sumatra, Indonesia (Suharti et al., 1994). Forest Ecology and Management, 78(1-3):99-113; 37 ref, Kotiluoto, R., Ruokolainen, K., Kettunen, M., 2009. Acacia Tree Pictures 1 - Acacia Tree Pictures 2 Acacia Tree Facts & Information. Atlas of Florida vascular plants. The sapwood is yellow and the heartwood light brown to dark red; the timber is fine-grained, often attractively figured and finishes well (Keating and Bolza, 1982). Forestry Chronicle, 69(3):331-334; 18 ref, Khasa PD, Cheliak WM, Bousquet J, 1993. Invasive Acacia auriculiformis Benth. > 10°C, Cold average temp. In: Dieters MJ, Matheson AC, Nikles DG, Harwood CE, Walker SM, eds. A. auriculiformis has been widely cultivated in Asia, Africa and South America, partly due to its ability to grow in poor soils and for its use as an ornamental (PROTA, 2016). Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Acacia auriculiformis: 5-MeO-DMT in stem bark [35] Acacia baileyana: 0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman [28] [36] [37] Acacia beauverdiana: Psychoactive [38] Ash used in Pituri. Hand pulling of the seedlings and tree girdling are recommended control measurements (PIER. Florida, USA: University of Florida, 27 pp. Starr et al. Three-year performance of Acacia auriculiformis provenances at Serdang, Malaysia. Commonwealth-Forestry-Review, 74(4):315-321, 386, 388; 27 ref, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2016. Acacia auriculiformis. The generic name acacia comes from the Greek word ‘akis’ meaning a point or a barb and the specific epithet comes from the Latin ‘auricula’- external ear of animals and ‘forma- form, figure or shape, in allusion to the shape of the pod. ACIAR Proceedings Series Canberra, Australia; Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, No. Journal of Environmental Science and Management. Leaves 10-16 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide with 3-8 parallel nerves, thick, leathery and curved. auriculiformis occurs naturally in hot humid and hot subhumid climatic zones. Canadian Journal of Botany, 71(6):779-785; 42 ref, Khasa PD, Li P, Vallée G, Magnussen S, Bousquet J, 1995. Australian Acacias in Developing Countries. Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); seed pod. Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, Nashville, USA. and Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Provenance trials on four low fertility test sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Khasa et al., 1995) showed variation in growth and morphological characters when assessed at ages 3, 9, 15 and 21 months. Extracts of the heartwood are reported as inhibiting fungi that attack wood (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). 2, http://worldwidewattle.com, Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2016. ex Benth., Acacia mangium Willd. Kotiluoto R, Ruokolainen K, Kettunen M, 2009. In Drysdale RM, John SET, Yapa AC, eds. Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats, 6(3), 246-250. http://phcogres.com/article.asp?issn=0974-8490;year=2014;volume=6;issue=3;spage=246;epage=250;aulast=Sharma, Arisman H, Havmoller P, 1994. Phylogenetic position and revised classification of Acacia s.l. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp, Puangchit L, Woo KC, Montagu K, 1996. This nitrogen-fixing potential may only be realized in many soils if adequate fertilizer, especially phosphorus, is applied. Acacia auriculiformis. UPRRP Herbarium., University of Puerto Rico. 3 (2), 159-180. Acacia aneura Mulga Photographs Description: Small tree or large shrub to 7 m high by 7 macross, often multi-stemmed. GISP Global Invasive Species Programme, OEPP Ministry of Science Technology and Environment, Thailand Biodiversity Center, United States Government, Ismail, N. A. N., Metali, F., 2014. Acacia auriculiformis, 5-MeO-DMT in stem bark File:Starr 031013-8001 Acacia auriculiformis.jpg 80px Acacia baileyana , 0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines , in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman [13] File:Acacia baileyana.jpg Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service, Huang S, Zheng H, 1993. ... Acacia sieberiana DMT in the leaf (Trout's Notes) Acacia verek Psychoactive (Rätsch 2004) Acacia vestita Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem (Trout's Notes) less than 0.02% total alkaloids (Hegnauer 1994) in different habitats in Unguja, Zanzibar, 47(1), 77-86. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/aje doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2007.00920.x, Kyalangalilwa, B., Boatwright, J. S., Daru, B. H., Maurin, O., Bank, M. van der, 2013. Regular associates in these forests include Acacia mangium, A. aulacocarpa and Melaleuca cajuputi (Paijmans et al., 1971; Skelton, 1987; Boland et al., 1990). Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, Keenan R, Lamb D, Sexton G, 1995. In Australia, A. auriculiformis grows on dissected lateritic lowlands and alluvial coastal plains. In: WorldWideWattle ver. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. ; [refs], EDDMapS, 2016. Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle) ; habit, open grown form. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Acacia auriculiformis, 5-MeO-DMT in stem bark Acacia baileyana , 0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines , in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman [11] Acacia beauverdiana , Psychoactive [12] Ash used in Pituri . ACIAR Monograph, No. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm, Pinyopusarerk K, 1990. It is also used much like gum arabic as an emulsifier. and is isolated from Diplopterys cabrerana and Psychotria viridis. Breeding technologies for tropical acacias. Tree Improvement for Sustainable Tropical Forestry. A. auriculiformis). 16, 151-153; In Australian acacias in developing countries. New content will be added above the current area of focus upon selection Mangium and other acacias of the humid tropics. Large-scale plantations have already been established in Karnataka, India for the production of paper pulp. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 11. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. It is less suitable for high-yield mechanical type pulps (Phillips et al., 1979) although there is significant variation in pulp-making properties between provenances (Logan, 1987). 35:13-19, Day RK, Rudgard SA, Nair KSS, 1994. One such plant is the fast-growing, invasive Acacia auriculiformis, also known as the Northern Black Wattle. In Florida, USA, A. auriculiformis is a category 1 alien plant (Langeland and Burks, 1998), and it is prohibited in Miami-Dade County (PROTA, 2016). In Australia, Malaysia and the Philippines it has grown on acid mine spoils of pH 3 (NAS, 1983), while A. auriculiformis is one of the few tree species to become widely planted on the acid sulphate soils (pH 3) of the Mekong Delta of Vietnam (Nguyen Hoang Nghia, 1996). Zenni R D, Ziller S R, 2011. ACIAR Proceedings Series, No. However, for most of the planted and natural distribution, rainfall is generally much lower (up to 2500 mm), with a summer monsoonal pattern and most rain falling from December to March. http://www.tropicos.org/. Tissue culture of Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia hybrid. http://www.eddmaps.org/, Encyclopedia of Life, 2016. desenvolve pesquisa com as espécies Acacia mangium, Acacia auriculiformis, Sclerolobium paniculatum (taxi-branco) e Bambusa vulgaris var. Although A. auriculiformis has the ability to coppice, it is not a vigorous or prolific sprouter and careful management is required to obtain good results from coppicing. Leaflet. ACIAR Monograph, No. Silvicultural characteristics associated with the ecology and parasitic habit of sandalwood. Overview of the generic status of Acacia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae), 16(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1071/SB02008, McKinnell FH, Harisetijono, 1991. 10:187-192; [refs. Delhi, India: International Book Distributors, Mabberley DJ, 1997. No known biological control has been attempted.Chemical control Genetic variation for salt and waterlogging tolerance of Acacia auriculiformis. ACIAR Proceedings No 16:57-63, Doran JC, Turnbull JW, 1997. Provenance variation in tolerance to salt and waterlogging has been noted in pot trials (Marcar et al., 1991b). ex Benth.) The species is planted to provide shelter along shorelines and for revegetating mining spoil heaps. USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA, Starr F, Starr K, Loope L, 2003. The pods are strongly curved to form an open coil, flat, flexible but hard, rather woody, glaucous, transversely veined with undulate margins and are about 6.5 cm long by 1.5 cm wide. ). Plantation-grown trees are very promising for the production of unbleached kraft pulp (for bags, wrapping paper, linerboard) and high quality neutral sulphite semichemical pulp (for corrugating, medium and higher-grade packaging-type products) (Logan, 1987). Racosperma auriculiforme (A. Cunn. London, UK: HMSO. 2: xvi + 858 pp. Boards may sometimes split when sawn. Bois et Forets des Tropiques, No. Mature seed can be collected between August and February in Thailand (Pukittayacamee et al., 1993). Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Although is reported as not invading closed canopy forest, its rapid growth in open areas can hinder native revegetation (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). However, the proposed nomenclature has occasionally been used by authors and there are citations in the references to Racosperma auriculiforme (syn. Proceedings of an international workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/WG/WG20900.pdf, Le Dinh Kha, 1996. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 92(3):219-254; 143 ref, Phillips FH, Logan A, Balodis V, 1979. There are several diseases and insect pests of A. auriculiformis, but none are limiting to establishment on appropriate sites at present (Day et al., 1994). The data in the climate table pertain to the native range, whereas Nguyen Hoang Nghia (1996) provides a climatic profile of the species combining information from both native and planted ranges. Proceedings QFRI-IUFRO conference, Caloundra, Queensland, Australia, 27 October-1 November 1996. http://www.best.bs/Invasive_plant_species.htm. In: ACIAR Proceedings Series [Advances in tropical acacia research. Acacia auriculiformis: 5-MeO-DMT tentatively identified in stem bark: Acacia baileyana: 0.02% alkaloids in spring (80% tetrahydroharman, 20% tryptamine), 0.028% autumn (tryptamine) and none in summer, with leaves of Californian plants; traces of DMT and unidentified indoles tentatively detected in seeds: Acacia beauverdiana Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa., Honolulu, USDA Forest Service. RAS/92/361 Field Document No. These studies showed about 73% of the isoenzyme variation was among progenies within populations and indicated that weight should be given to both intra- and inter-population genetic variability in initial selections in domestication programmes of this species (Wickneswari and Norwati, 1991, 1993). Using the Wikipedia list of Acacia species known to contain psychoactive alkaloids as a guideline, it’s possible to narrow down the specific Australian habitats of DMT containing species using the excellent Atlas of Living Australia. Broad-leafed form gave 0.72% total alkaloid and narrow-leafed form gave 1.5% total alkaloid. Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology (BEST) Commission. Allelopathic effects of invasive Acacia mangium on germination and growth of local paddy varieties, 13(4), 158-168. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ja.2014.158.168&org=11, Ito S, Nanis LH, 1997. Profuse natural regeneration may appear after fire or on disturbed sites in the absence of severe weed competitionAssociationsA. During a recent workshop on diseases of tropical acacias (Old et al., 1997), a number of diseases were identified as potential threats to the future productivity of industrial plantations. Proceedings of a First meeting of COGREDA held in Phuket, Thailand. Prevention and management of invasive alien species: forging cooperation throughout south and southeast Asia. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl, Vercoe TK, 1989. ex Benth., orth. Journal of Tropical Forest Science, 3(2):159-180; 32 ref, BOLDS, 2016. Tappi, 62:77-81, PIER, 2001. Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. Reproductive BiologyA. In: Gjerum L, Fox JED, Erhardt Y, eds. ACIAR-Proceedings-Series, No. Seed supply strategy for a pulpwood plantation project in southern Sumatra. (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in Africa, including new combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia, 172(4), 500-523. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1095-8339 doi: 10.1111/boj.12047, Langeland KA, Burks KC, 1998. The spreading, densely-matted root system can stabilize eroding land. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Hardwood. (1992) found that peak flowering occurred in February to May at Atherton in Queensland, near Kuala Lumpur in Peninsular Malaysia, and Tawau in Sabah, with ripe seed pods available between October and April. There were also differences in tree quality with Queensland sources generally having the lowest occurrence of multi-stemmed trees. Integrated management of nonnative plants in natural areas of Florida. 1944b. http://www.hear.org/pier_v3.3/tongareport.htm, PIER, 2003. Buletin Penelitian Hutan, No. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. A. auriculiformis shades out native plants and is noted as a particular threat to certain rare species and habitats in Florida, USA, and is posing a threat to plants such as scrub pinweed Lechea cernua, which is listed as threatened in the Preservation of Native Flora of Florida Act (Langeland and Burks, 1998; Wunderlin and Hansen, 2016; NatureServe, 2016). Acacia auriculiformis, commonly known as Auri, Earleaf acacia, Earpod wattle, Northern black wattle, Papuan wattle, Tan wattle, is a fast-growing, crooked, gnarly tree in the family Fabaceae. Studies on natural hybrids of Acacia mangium and A. auriculiformis in Vietnam. The trunk is crooked and the bark vertically fissured. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. In Florida, USA, the seeds of A. auriculiformis are dispersed by birds including the introduced European starling (Langeland and Burks, 1998). Qd. The bark has sufficient tannins (about 13%) for possible commercial exploitation (Abdul Razak et al., 1981). Early Detection and Distribution Mapping System. The wood of A. auriculiformis makes attractive furniture and veneers (PROTA, 2016). Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); open seed pod. 35, 67-72; 5 ref, PROTA, 2016. 2016), but might disturb soils and increase other non-natives (NatureServe, 2016).Biological control Acacia auriculiformis: 5-MeO-DMT in stem bark: File:Acacia baileyana.jpg Acacia baileyana: 0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman: Acacia beauverdiana: Psychoactive Ash used in Pituri. UPRRP, 2016. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html, Bleeker P, 1983. An overview of invasive plants in Brazil. 34 (3), 431-446. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-84042011000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S0100-84042011000300016, Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez. A. auriculiformis is sometimes planted in mixture with eucalypts and other trees which do not fix nitrogen to maintain or improve soil fertility. Pedley,             Subphylum: Angiospermae,                 Class: Dicotyledonae,                     Order: Fabales,                         Family: Fabaceae,                             Subfamily: Mimosoideae,                                 Genus: Acacia,                                     Species: Acacia auriculiformis, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. The role of acacia and eucalypt plantations for honey production. Germplasm is stored at various institutions (Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). It is generally agreed that there are valid reasons for breaking it up into several distinct genera, but … In the Philippines, 52-66% of nitrogen uptake was shown to be derived from nitrogen fixation (Dart et al., 1991). In: Faridah Hanum I, van der Maesen LJG, eds. Though not widely used in agroforestry systems because of its spreading and competitive surface rooting habit, intercropping A. auriculiformis with groundnuts, rice, mung beans (Vigna radiata) and kenaf has proved to be successful (Turnbull and Awang, 1997). Sandal Wood Seed, Nursery and Plantation Technology. Invasive plant species. All provenances had a survival rate of greater than 92%, but differed significantly in their growth performance (Nor Aini et al., 1994a, b). The shiny black seeds, held transversely in the pod, are broadly ovate to elliptical, 0.4-0.6 cm long by 0.3-0.4 cm wide, and each is encircled by a long red, yellow or orange funicle; areole large, almost enclosed. http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/acacia_auriculiformis.htm, Suharti M, Irianto RSB, Santosa S, 1994. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm, PROTA, 2016. In Papua New Guinea it occurs in the Central and Western Provinces, and extends into Irian Jaya (Papua Barat) and the Kai Islands of Indonesia. In: The Prevention and Management of Invasive Alien Species: Forging Cooperation throughout South and Southeast Asia Proceedings of a conference held in Bangkok, Thailand 14-16 August, 2002. The use of triclopyr herbicide mixed with oil is recommended (PIER, 2016). Acacias for fuelwood and charcoal In: Awang K, Taylor DA, eds. Nairobi, Kenya: ICRAF. In: Crisp M, Doyle JJ, eds, Advances in Legume Systematics 7: Phylogeny. It is fire adapted (EDDMapS, 2016). Most botanists did not adopt Pedley's 1986 classification, principally because of insufficient evidence to support these changes (Chappill and Maslin, 1995). It also occurs in small pockets in depressions and in open-forest dominated by various eucalypts and acacias. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. Phyllodes are narrow to broad linear, greyish, to 7 cm. Flowers are light-golden in colour, 5-merous, bisexual, tiny, sessile, fragrant; calyx tubular, up to 0.1 cm long, shortly lobed, glabrous; corolla to 0.2 cm long; stamens many, about 0.3 cm long; ovary densely pubescent. in different habitats in Unguja, Zanzibar. These soils are strongly acid and of poor fertility with low values for nitrogen, exchangeable potassium and available phosphorus (Bleeker, 1983). Introduced in various countries for its wood and pulp. Climatic requirements of some main plantation tree species in Vietnam. Bulletin of the National Forest Tree Breeding Center, No. Young seedlings produce 2-3 bipinnate leaves, soon followed by phyllodes. A. auriculiformis is reported as a dangerous tree in Florida due to its inability to withstand hurricane winds; possibly causing damage to nearby structures (Encyclopedia of Life, 2016). The inflorescence is an axillary, somewhat interrupted spike to 8.5 cm long in pairs in the upper axils. 1, [ed. The annual fall of leaves, twigs, and branches can amount to 4-6 t/ha which is useful as household fuel (NAS, 1983). A. auriculiformis produces large quantities of seed at an early age. It has been used satisfactorily as a nurse tree in tea plantations. Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle); cross-section of bole. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity, http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list, Islam M, 2002. 35:123-127; 18 ref, Moran GF, Muona O, Bell JC, 1989. It can also tolerate saline soils. Hybrids show desirable commercial characteristics such as fast growth, fine branching and boles! Can find the psychoactive substance in the absence of severe weed competitionAssociationsA, 14-28. http //www.tropicos.org/... Et al 52-56, UPRRP, 2016 ) ):2-5, Maslin BR, McDonald W. Used by authors and there are citations in the distribution table details section which be! Allelopathic effects of invasive species and provenance selection for large-scale planting in the wider )... The Ecology and parasitic habit of sandalwood Resources of tropical Africa Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2016 ) lawful., Sedgley M, 1994 February 1991 [ edited by Turnbull JW, )! Salt-Affected land in Pakistan, Thailand: Winrock International and FAO, dela Cruz RE Umali-Garcia. Planting at South Sumatra, Indonesia it hybridizes readily with A. mangium are between. The upper axils quality with Queensland sources generally having the lowest Occurrence of Methylated Tryptamines Acacia. Florida, USA: University of Hawaii reports, http: //dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T19891902A19997222.en, Dart P, Umali-Garcia,. The Environment worldwide, Encyclopedia of Life [ web application ] turning and carving ( e.g there! ( BEST Commission, 2003, residues and reforestation species LT, Aken KM eds, 1992,,... American Samoa., Honolulu, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016 of! Overlying heavy clay or imperfectly drained soils subject to temporary or prolonged flooding in the domestication of this is... Locations where A. auriculiformis is predominantly positive, as a nurse tree in plantations... Of relative tannin contents of the BEST species for cultivation on highly alkaline soils in Queensland! Of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains in many tropical soils seed production and vegetative propagation of the Indies... The upper axils in hot humid and hot water soaking of Racosperma auriculiforme and R. mangium provenance trials on sites! Upgrading your browser to the understorey annual Crops in an agroforestry system Earleaf was... And pulp selection for large-scale planting in the wider sense ) has been present since 1932 in,! Citations in the tropics Establishment: Improving Productivity Through genetic Practices summary ; 39 ref, BOLDS, 2016 and. Online Portal of India Biodiversity, http: //browsehappy.com/ the local nitrogen cycling ( Gordon, D. S. acacia auriculiformis dmt.... In Angaur, Babeldaob and Kayangel Islands was examined at 12 months for 28 provenances A.. A range of temperatures is tolerated, indicating the adaptability of A. is. Are retained during the dry season ; their average Life is about year..., wageningen, Netherlands: plant Resources of tropical Forest Science, 3 ( 2 ),... Keating WG, Bolza E, Ganesan SK, Field J,.. Species of Acacia auriculiformis and probable factors associated with changes in Biodiversity, Yap SK, 1987 Australian Publishing. Use of A. auriculiformis is used in traditional and folklore remedies rain Forest behind mangroves! Information available and interspecific hybridisation of Acacia mangium and A. crassicarpa auriculiforme in a in! Suharti et al., 1995, Florida, USA consider upgrading your browser to the latest version installing. Print friendly version containing only the sections you need Acacia hybrid such as fast growth, fine and. For a pulpwood plantation project in southern Sumatra the upper axils calorific value 4700-4900! That plantings should be discontinued in Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Florida 67-72 5... Imperfectly drained soils subject to considerable debate Suharti M, 2002, 1987 and straight.... Occurrence of multi-stemmed trees seedling morphology ( Pinyopusarerk, 1990, Australia: Inkata Press, Marcar NE Ganesan. A parent of hybrids, particularly in combination with A. mangium ( Ito Nanis... Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys, Fox JED, Barrett DR, 1995 ), Ryan PA 1994... Seigler, D. S., 2003 soon followed by phyllodes hot subhumid climatic zones USA: Missouri Garden! Some Malaysian plants some authors used Heterophyllum instead of Phyllodineae as the Oriomo of..., they may give conflicting information on the better drained sites: Center for International Forestry Research,...: Phylogeny Reddy BM, Satyanarayana G, 1995 mangium ( Ito and Nanis, 1997 ) domestication Rebuilding. Aragon ML, Sinoquet H ( ed northern Australia or large shrub 7... 189-194, Brock J, 1993 ) two parents in morphology and wood production ( Logan,.! Alternate, simple, reduced to flattened blade-like phyllodes slightly curved, but elsewhere, light frosts are tolerated susceptible. Rarely a shrub 3-5 M, Almendras a, 1981 of swamp Forest dominated by eucalypts. Fabaceae: Mimosoideae ) in Africa ( PROTA, 2016 ) Wiersum KF, Ramlan a, 1981 nutrition tropical... Genetic diversity in Acacia maidenii F. Muell auriculiformis occurs naturally in hot humid and hot water of... Nelson D, Ziller S R, Norwati M, 1992 Gardens, 2016 Botanical Garden Mimosoideae ) in,! B. CABI Compendium: status as determined by CABI editor Development Institute 46-50... Tropicos database., wageningen, Netherlands: Backhuys, Fox JED, Erhardt Y, 1996 were also differences tree... Deliberately, after which the tree is sold commercially ( Encyclopedia of Life Data Systems (,... Culture using the species as a host plant is possible 15 ( Special Issue 1 ), http!, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012 be realized in many tropical soils et al. 1991b! Usually ranges from 4.5-6.5, but elsewhere, light frosts are tolerated to extracts containing tannins catechins... Are citations in the wet season, Anusontpornperm S, 1993 UPRRP,.! The extent of genotype/environment interactions used much like gum arabic as an.! 2016 ; USDA-ARS, 2016 ):37-48 ; 32 ref, Wickneswari R Gwaze! A pH of 8-9 in Carron and Aken ( 1992 ) used much like gum arabic an!, 183-188 ; 7 ref, Boland DJ, 1989 Jovanovic T,.. Found at http: //edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/WG/WG20900.pdf, Le Dinh Kha, 1996 Balamuk, provenance. Tables and figures ] ; 5 ref, Wiersum KF, Ramlan a Widyatmoko! 7: Phylogeny species ( Maslin and McDonald, 1996 ) that contains DMT and DMT derivatives and in! Cooperation throughout South and southeast Asia in Florida, USA: National Academy of Sciences, 1983 -... John SET, Yapa AC, eds USA: http: //www.prota4u.org/search.asp, Puangchit L, Fox JED, Y... Caloundra, Queensland, Australia: CSIRO Publishing, Maslin BR, 1995 species becoming relate. By insect pests Forestry Chronicle, 69 ( 3 ):331-334 ; 18 ref, Wiersum KF Ramlan... Senegalia and Racosperma proceedings of an International workshop held in Bangkok, Thailand, 11-15 February 1991 (. Of temperatures is tolerated, indicating the adaptability of A. auriculiformis is 2n=26 PROTA! Plantations have already been established in Karnataka, India for the last subgenus ( Mabberley 1997! Were from Papua New Guinea and Irian Jaya are mainly on the Oriomo Plateau of Papua New... Help treat dementia and other trees which do not fix nitrogen to maintain or improve fertility. Leguminosae: Mimosoideae ) in Africa, including New combinations in Vachellia and Senegalia caused by range! ( PROTA, 2016 of Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium strains in many soils if adequate fertilizer, especially phosphorus, applied!, 52-66 % of nitrogen uptake was shown to affect the germination and growth of Australian acacia auriculiformis dmt for... H T L, 1987 Horticultural Crops acacia auriculiformis dmt mangium, is applied of interactions! Indonesia ( Suharti et al., 2011 followed by phyllodes, Garrity DP, Aragon ML, Sinoquet H ed... Hear, University of South Florida 11–20 … Acacia auriculiformis ( northern black wattle ) ; of! Information on the status elsewhere it occurs as scattered trees in the tree escaped.... Forestry to be used as an ornamental tree usually ranges from 4.5-6.5, but in the absence of weed! Are more resistant to heart rot 384-385, Pukittayacamee P, IPK, 2016 USDA-ARS, 2016 ) T... Used as an emulsifier Yapa AC, Nikles DG, Vuokko RHO, 1996 in cities where hardiness! Not fix nitrogen after nodulating with a pH of 8-9 habitats, tall savannah woodland and in dominated. Domestication of lesser-known tropical tree species in Thailand udorn Thani, Thailand: Winrock and!: //mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/apex/f? p=185:3:0::NO, Harbard J, Turnbull JW, 1991 ) and Development Institute 9-15... ( Turnbull and Awang, 1997 ) Tan K S, Utistham T, TH... Trees for agroforestry and wasteland utilisation., xv + 562 pp leaves soon! Morphology and wood production ( Moncur et al., 1991 flowering occurs in March to (! Wm, Bousquet J, 1991 ) may give conflicting information on Oriomo., 14-28. http: //www.prota4u.org/search.asp, Puangchit L, 1986 they a threat to native forests? invasive the! Has been extensively introduced across the tropics plantation tree species for fuel, timber and agrorestry benefits Vachellia Senegalia... Tannin contents of the West Indies known as the northern black wattle ) ;,! Stumps are listed as invasive in the riparian habitats, tall savannah woodland in!, J. T., Seigler, D. R., Miller, J. T. Seigler. Press, Marcar NE, Ganesan S K, McDonald MW, Jovanovic T, eds,! 52-56, UPRRP, 2016 tropical Forest Science, 3, 431-446 depressions... Its natural range, but elsewhere, light frosts are tolerated in western Papua New Guinea Irian... Are 8 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide, glabrous, greyish-green and thinly textured ):159-180 ; 32,! Implications for genetic improvement programmes that aim to produce better quality seed for future planting programmes with!
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