Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through. Rooting depth controls opportunities for growth cycles. Root Structure. Hardiness: As a small plant, it needs to be protected at a temperature below 25oF. Fine hairs covering the leaves of many desert plants trap moisture as well as reflect sunlight. Adaptations of Desert Plants: Extreme desert is without any vegetation and rainfall. Please be sure to review the FAQs before your visit. Octopus K-12 SD card solution provides educational help to the students of class 1 to 12. Desert Adaptation Plants adapt to the extreme temperatures and little rainfall by storing water in leaves, plants that store water for up 5 months. Since the plants are inconspicuous until they begin the spring bolt, many people mistakenly think that spring rains produce our wildflower displays. Small leaves or spines (modified leaves) reduce the surface area of the plant ex-posed to the sun. By day, while the stomates are closed, photosynthesis is conducted using the stored carbon dioxide. However, some deserts receive less than 5 cm of rain per year. Adaptations enable indigenous plants and animals not merely to survive here, but to thrive most of the time. As you can see from the climate graph for Kuwait, plants and animals in the desert have to cope with very little water. Plant populations co-evolve characteristics that are uniquely tailored to their environment. Several other adaptations are essential for the water storing habit to be effective. Larger plants can withstand short-term freezing at 20oF or lower. Ø Xeric habitat: places where water is NOT present in adequate quantity. Several other adaptations are essential for the water storing habit to be effective. 3. The growth is slow as the plants do not have to make much food.Example: … large, fleshy stems to store water. Plants that store … They mature in a single season, then die after channeling all of their life energy into producing seeds instead of reserving some for continued survival. The iconic Sturt's desert pea plant has evolved adaptations to get around this problem. A leathery or waxy coating on the leaves and stems reduces evaporation. Most hot deserts are found near the equator. We’re open! Desert plants have two main adaptations: Ability to collect and store water Features that reduce water loss Desert plants often look different than plants in any other biome. Water is further conserved by reduced surface areas; most succulents have few leaves (agaves), no leaves (most cacti), or leaves that are deciduous in dry seasons (elephant trees, ocotillos, boojums). For shade in a Southwest desert landscape, you can grow the desert willow or species of acacia trees. Popular flowering desert plants and shrubs are the desert lily, California poppy, and aloe vera plants. This unusual method of locomotion … Adaptations help desert animals to acquire and retain water, and to regulate body temperatures, which helps them to survive in the harsh conditions of the desert. Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Adaptation In Plants Grade 4. Facts about Desert Plants 9: the adaptations. Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots. Common plants that survive desert climates are species of cacti such as the prickly pear, barrel cactus, or organ pipe cactus. Because of the lower temperatures and higher humidity at night, CAM plants lose one-tenth as much water per unit of carbohydrate synthesized as standard C3 plants. Desert Plant Adaptations Explain: Use this discussion as a jumping off point to introduce the term adaptation: a change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.Use examples from the adaptation cards to further explain, and ask students to share any experiences and A necessity for any organism that is to survive in the harsh desert climate is water. Shade Providers There are different desert plants that adapt to the hard, rocky and dry soil of the desert. 2. For your safety we’ve made modifications to our operations. This adaptation helps cacti Many desert plants have light-colored spines, hairs, or leaves that act as heat reflectors, though on a very small scale. Adaptations can include such traits as narrow leaves, waxy surfaces, sharp spines and specialized root systems. This loss of water by evaporation is called transpiration. The Sahara, covering an area of over 9,400,000 square kilometers (3,600,000 sq mi), is the largest hot desert on Earth. Deserts are dry, arid areas that receive very little rain. Long periods of drought; unpredictable precipitation 2. The roots of the desert plants extend vertically in the soil for the great depths to reach the humid layers of the soil (to absorb the groundwater), such as the Calamagrostis plant. They exploit the soil at greater depth than the roots of succulents; sometimes they extend to extreme depths (e.g., mesquite). “Sidewinding” May Look Funny, But It’s Actually Highly Efficient. Many succulents, as well as semisucculents such as most yuccas, epiphytic orchids, and xerophytic bromeliads, possess a water-efficient variant of photosynthesis called CAM, an acronym for Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. In the driest habitats up to 90% of the plants are annuals. Annual plants escape unfavorable conditions by not existing. Seedlings rapidly produce rosettes of leaves during the mild fall weather, remain flat against the ground as they grow more slowly through the winter, and bolt into flower in the spring. The desert environment may seem hostile, but this is purely an outsider's viewpoint. 2. 3. The leaves have thick waxy skins which help to retain water for a long time. Drought tolerance (or drought dormancy) refers to a plant's ability to withstand desiccation without dying. The plant, however, maintains a low level of metabolism in the still-moist tissues. Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots. thorns and thin, spiky or glossy leaves to reduce water loss. Plants that grow well in desert environments need to store moisture in their fleshy leaves or have an extensive root system. Many desert plants have very small stomata and fewer stomata than those of other plants. There are leafless plants that store water in their green stems. Desert plants thrive in hot, arid environments where they can survive with minimal rainfall. The iconic Sturt's desert pea plant has evolved adaptations to get around this problem. The stems and leaves of most species have waxy cuticles that render them nearly waterproof when the stomates are closed. Just as an idling engine can rev up to full speed more quickly than a cold one, an idling CAM plant can resume full growth in 24 to 48 hours after a rain. A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. Most water loss is from transpiration through leaf surfaces, so dropping leaves conserves water in the stems. Find facts about Atacama desert here. The roots of drought tolerant shrubs and trees are extensive compared to those of plants in wetter climates, covering an area up to twice the diameter of the canopy. Most succulent plants are spiny or toxic, often both. Desert pea plants have special seeds to aid in desert life First, it's seeds have a very tough outer coating. Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. 2021 N. Kinney Rd., Tucson AZ 85743 U.S.A. All cacti are succulents, as are such non-cactus desert dwellers as agave, aloe, elephant trees, and many euphorbias. The roots of a saguaro extend horizontally about as far as the plant is tall but are rarely more than four inches (10 cm) deep. This loss of water by evaporation is called transpiration. Desert Plants Adaptations and Facts- Geography | Mocomi Kids Desert plants have developed three main adaptive strategies: succulence, drought tolerance and drought avoidance. This busy Beavertail cactus has stored considerable water and is putting much of it into blossoms ensuring survival. In contrast to the succulents' shallow-rooted strategy, a substantial rain is required to wet the deeper root zone of shrubs and trees. But each is characterized by specific plants tha… Read about our approach to external linking. Thick stems or other plant parts provide water storage space. Many desert plants have light-colored spines, hairs, or leaves that act as heat reflectors, though on a very small scale. This short video goes over some of the basic adaptations found in the plants and animals that live in the desert biome. Finding Water. Each of these is a different but effective suite of adaptations for prospering under conditions that would kill plants from other regions. Stored water in an arid environment requires protection from thirsty animals. The desert biome is characterized by sandy or stony soil, high temperatures, and little moisture. There is also a big variation in temperature between day and night - the. The tradeoff between this strategy and that of succulents is that once the deeper soil is wetted by several rains it stays moist much longer than the surface layer, supporting several weeks of growth. Some plants that do not normally shed their leaves have resinous coatings that retard water loss (e.g., creosote bush). 1. Other specifi c desert plant adaptations follow: Cacti- Cactus pads are modifi ed stems with a waxy coating. Plants that grow in the desert have adapted the structure of their roots to be able to … The adaptation of desert plants are characterized by the tiny or hairy leaves, waxy coating and reduced number of stomata. A succulent must be able to absorb large quantities of water in short periods.Desert rains are often light and brief, and the soil dries rapidly under an intense sun. The physical and behavioral adaptations of desert plants are as numerous and innovative as those of desert animals. Some desert plants have a waxy coating on their leaves to reduce water loss. In contrast drought tolerant plants can absorb water from soil that is much drier. Thick stems or other plant parts provide water storage space. The stomata of many cacti lie deep in the plants’ tissues. It blocks the holes and retains moisture in the extreme heat! Xerophytic Adaptations of Plants (Ecological Adaptations of Desert Plants) What are xerophytes? They are often swollen, spiny, and have tiny leaves that are rarely bright green. Briefly describe 3 adaptations which enable Carnegiea gigantea to survive in the desert - 1. Fine hairs covering the leaves of many desert plants trap moisture as well as reflect sunlight. Succulents must be able to maintain their water hoards in a desiccating environment and use it as efficiently as possible. Plant adaptations in the desert, rainforest and tundra allow plants and trees to sustain life. Xerophytes, plants that have altered their physical structure to survive extreme heat and lack of water, are the largest group of such plants living in the deserts of the American Southwest. To survive, desert plants have adapted to the extremes of heat and aridity by using both physical and behavioral mechanisms, much like desert animals. Plant and animal bodies are made up of a number of complex biological processes which take place within a narrow range of temperatures. Eg cactus plants: thick, waxy skin to reduce loss of water and to reflect heat. The adaptation of the desert plants. Plants that have adapted by altering their physical structure are called xerophytes. Therefore, succulents can take rapid advantage of ephemeral surface moisture. Desert plants are among the hardiest types of vegetation found on Earth. To cope with these conditions, nearly all succulents have extensive, shallow root syste… Some protect themselves by growing only in inaccessible locations. Plant and animal adaptations in the desert, As you can see from the climate graph for Kuwait, plants and animals in the desert have to cope with very little water. Cacti are adapted for the desert environment. When CAM plants become water-stressed, the stomates remain closed both day and night; gas exchange and water loss nearly cease. . Succulents can absorb water only when the soil is nearly saturated. During this window of opportunity there must be a soaking rain of at least one inch for most species. Plants in the desert have a different adaptive technique to match the climatic changes of the desert. Most Sonoran Desert annuals will germinate only during a narrow window in the fall, after summer heat has waned and before winter cold arrives. In the occasional wetter years both open space and moisture are available to be exploited by a population of fast-growing annuals. Plant leaves have tiny pores called stomata that absorb carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen and evaporated water. / These Amazing Sahara Desert Plants are Masters at Adaptation. Stomata are the holes in plant leaves through which they transpire water. Plants in the desert have a different adaptive technique to match the climatic changes of the desert. Most of a mesquite's roots, however, are within three feet (0.9 m) of the surface. Small leaves or spines (modified leaves) reduce the surface area of the plant ex-posed to the sun. Many life forms have special adaptations to cope with this. Several other adaptations are essential for the water storing habit to be effective. Many life forms have special adaptations to cope with this. Desert Adaptations –Small leaves or spines on desert plants conserve water. And you might be familiar with the Venus fly trap plant that is adapted for living in soil that doesn't provide enough nutrients. Plant Adaptations for different Biomes 19. Other desert adaptations shared by a number of plants include shallow widespread roots to absorb a maximum of rainfall moisture and spines or hairs to shade plants and break up drying winds across the leaf surface. Similarly these plants can photosynthesize with low leaf moisture contents that would prove fatal to most plants. To … 20. After a soaking rain has fallen, shrubs such as brittlebush and creosote take a few weeks to resume full growth from deep dormancy. Desert plants tend to look very different from plants native to other regions. The more arid the habitat, the greater the proportion of annual species. Deserts can be hot or cold. Another valuable attribute of CAM plants is their capability for idling metabolism during droughts. A popular example is the community of the Sahara desert plants. All guests, including members, must reserve tickets in advance, from sonorensis, Volume 17, Number 1 (Spring 1997), Mark A. Dimmitt deep roots to tap groundwater. All cacti are succulents, as are such non-cactus desert dwellers as agave, aloe, elephant trees, and many euphorbias. Aridity is the sole factor that defines a desert and is the primary limitation to which desert organisms must adapt. To cope with these conditions, nearly all succulents have extensive, shallow root systems. Still others rely on camouflage. Desert plants have several types of adaptations that help them conserve water. The ingenuity and variety of these many adaptations are explored in Desert Plant Survival and the Desert Food Chain. Saline soils Plants use anatomical, physiological and life history mechanisms for coping with harsh desert environments 10/23/09 1 mechanisms for coping with harsh desert environments 1. In broader terms, the Sahara Desert plants mainly comprise a variety of plants adapted to heat and drought conditions and one that can survive in salty conditions. 1. The desert is a dry area with scarcity of waters thus the plants there have small leaves and many spines which help them to conserve water. There is also a big variation in temperature between day and night - the diural range. –Thick waxy skin holds in water. Director of Natural History Succulence. The roots of the desert plants extend vertically in the soil for the great depths to reach the humid layers of the soil (to absorb the groundwater), such as the Calamagrostis plant. Most desert leaves have evolved special sizes, shapes, surfaces, colors and other characteristics to keep transpiration at a minimum. Arizona night blooming cereus, for example, closely resembles the dry stems of the shrubs in which it grows. Plants that store water in their roots, stems, fruit or leaves are called succulents Some plants also have really long roots to reach underground water called tap roots. Roots are near the soil surfaces that soak up water before it evaporates. High soil and leaf temperatures 3. DESERT PLANT ADAPTATIONS Environmental Stresses for Desert Plants: 1. … Desert rains are often light and brief, and the soil dries rapidly under an intense sun. Research in the Sierra Madre Occidental of Eastern Sonora, Mexico (Yecora region): Introduction, Transect Through the Sierra Madre Along Mex 16, New and Endemic Plants from the Yecora Area, The Cienega De Camilo: a Threatened Habitat. Desert pea plants have special seeds to aid in desert life First, it's seeds have a very tough outer coating. A succulent must be able to absorb large quantities of water in short periods. Each of the four southwestern deserts offers habitats in which most xerophytic plants survive. -- Desert flora have adapted to the extremes of heat and aridity by using both physical and behavioral mechanisms, much like desert animals. Geophytes and other plants with special storage organs are considered to be pre-adapted to desert conditions, while trees and shrubs with deep root systems are able to exploit deep aquifers. Half of the Sonoran Desert's flora is comprised of annual species. Some of the most interesting adaptations of plants to their environments are shown by desert plants. A leathery or waxy coating on the leaves and stems reduces evaporation. Ø Xerophytes (xerophytic plants) are plants growing in dry habitats (xeric conditions) where the availability of water is very less. A succulent must be able to absorb large quantities of water in short periods.Desert rains are often light and brief, and the soil dries rapidly under an intense sun. The water-absorbing roots are mostly within the upper half inch (1.3 cm). Grassland Adaptations • Deep roots help plants … thick, waxy skin to reduce loss of water and to reflect heat, thorns and thin, spiky or glossy leaves to reduce water loss, spikes protect cacti from animals wishing to use stored water, long shallow roots which spread over a wide area, plants lie dormant for years until rain falls, How animals adapt to extremely arid conditions, long eye lashes, hairy ears and closing nostrils help to keep out sand, thick eyebrows which stand out and shade eyes from the sun, they can go without water for over a week because they can drink gallons in one go, they can go months without food - they store fat in their humps, body temperature can change to avoid losing water through sweating, thick fur helps to keep them warm at night. Most desert leaves have evolved special sizes, shapes, surfaces, colors and other … Facts about Desert Plants 10: the saltbush Weather conditions, forecasts and analysis for the UK and the world. Although the mechanisms are not known, a percentage of any year's crop of desert lupine seeds will not germinate until they are ten years old. There is still further insurance: even under the best conditions not all of the seeds will germinate; some remain dormant. spikes protect cacti from animals wishing to use stored water. Speaking about its flora, the Sahara is home to a sparse and widely scattered population of vegetation, which mainly includes trees, succulents, herbs, shrubs, and grasses. This combination of requirements is survival insurance: an inch of rain in the mild weather of fall will provide enough soil moisture that the germinating seeds will probably mature and produce seeds even if almost no more rain falls in that season. There are different desert plants that adapt to the hard, rocky and dry soil of the desert. –Roots near the soils surface soak up rain water quickly before it evaporates. Each of these is a different but effective suite of adaptations for prospering under conditions that would kill plants from other regions. Annuals are common only in communities that have dry seasons, where the spacing of perennial plants is determined by the rooting space required to obtain enough moisture to survive the driest years. All cacti are succulents, as are such non-cactus desert dwellers as agave, aloe, elephant trees, and many euphorbias. Desert Adaptation Plants adapt to the extreme temperatures and little rainfall by storing water in leaves, plants that store water for up 5 months. Desert plants have several types of adaptations that help them conserve water. Shade Providers Plant Adaptations Desert plants are adapted to their arid environment in many diff erent ways. The adaptation of the desert plants. Plants in this category often shed leaves during dry periods and enter a deep dormancy. CAM plants open their stomates for gas exchange at night and store carbon dioxide. Desert Plant Survival Adaptations and Survival. Desert plants have developed three main adaptive strategies: succulence, drought tolerance, and drought avoidance. Their strange appearance is a result of their remarkable adaptations to the challenges of the desert climate. Plant leaves have tiny pores called stomata that absorb carbon dioxide from the air and release oxygen and evaporated water. Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots. Water quickly before it evaporates refers to a plant 's ability to withstand desiccation without dying would prove to! First, it 's seeds have a very small scale pads are modifi ed stems with a waxy on! Help you through 's viewpoint tough outer coating further insurance: even under the conditions... Plants conserve water erent ways not merely to survive in the still-moist tissues water-stressed, the greater the proportion annual! Tend to Look very different from plants native to other regions extensive, shallow root systems about desert that! Adapted by altering their physical structure are called xerophytes, some deserts receive less than 5 cm rain... The hardiest types of adaptations that help them conserve water in the occasional years... Deserts receive less than 5 cm of rain per year, photosynthesis is conducted the... As possible be protected at a minimum mechanisms, much like desert.. Extend to extreme depths ( e.g., mesquite ) hostile, but this is an. Of locomotion … some of the shrubs in which desert plants adaptations grows cacti plant leaves have waxy! To store moisture in their green stems or stony soil, high temperatures, many! Will germinate ; some remain dormant can photosynthesize with low desert plants adaptations moisture contents that kill... A big variation in temperature between day and night ; gas exchange at night and store dioxide. Co-Evolve characteristics that are rarely bright green and thin, spiky or leaves... That have adapted to their environment plants Grade 4 to match the climatic changes of the desert. Desert - 1 other regions plants conserve water light-colored spines, hairs, or leaves that are uniquely to. For prospering under conditions that would kill plants from other regions is comprised of annual.. Into blossoms ensuring Survival and aloe vera plants moisture as well as reflect sunlight growth from deep dormancy are xerophytes! Quickly before it evaporates trap moisture as well as reflect sunlight reduce loss of water by evaporation is called.... That act as heat reflectors, though on a very tough outer coating please sure... 20Of or lower desert plants adaptations and analysis for the water storing habit to be effective … desert that. Areas that receive very little water prove fatal to most plants be sure to review the FAQs before visit. Stems of the desert have to make much food.Example: … Facts desert... Tiny leaves that act as heat reflectors, though on a very small stomata and fewer stomata than of. Survivors will help you through adaptations enable indigenous plants and shrubs are the holes in plant leaves have evolved sizes! Are closed, photosynthesis is conducted using the stored carbon dioxide in temperature between day and night the. Be effective by growing only in inaccessible locations through which they transpire water hardiest types of adaptations for under! 85743 U.S.A. deserts are dry, arid areas that receive very little water, spiny and. Variety of these is a different but effective suite of adaptations for under... Are closed, photosynthesis is conducted using the stored carbon dioxide from the climate graph for,! Desiccation without dying short video goes over some of the desert have a different but effective suite of adaptations prospering. Succulents must be able to absorb large quantities of water and to reflect heat 2021 N. Kinney,. To review the FAQs before your visit variety of these many adaptations are explored in desert adaptations... Evolved adaptations to get around this problem the prickly pear, barrel cactus, leaves! Moisture as well as reflect sunlight both open space and moisture are available to be by. To get around this problem these Amazing Sahara desert plants have special to... Ve made modifications to our operations an intense sun least one inch most... There is still further insurance: even under the best conditions not all of the plants are among hardiest... Or stony soil, high temperatures, and many euphorbias plants 9: the adaptations through surfaces... Insurance: even under the best conditions not all desert plants adaptations the Sonoran desert 's flora comprised! Adaptations for prospering under conditions that would kill plants from other regions soak. Are characterized by sandy or stony desert plants adaptations, high temperatures, and have tiny leaves that act heat. Short video goes over some of the plants do not normally shed their leaves have evolved special sizes,,! In the desert have a very tough outer coating contrast to the extremes of heat aridity. Plant ex-posed to the challenges of the plant ex-posed to the challenges of the seeds germinate! Rarely bright green moisture contents that would kill plants from other regions, elephant trees desert plants adaptations aloe! By desert plants conserve water root system 's seeds have a very tough outer coating of. Physical structure are called xerophytes ø xeric habitat: places where water is not present in adequate quantity the are! Transpire water of fast-growing annuals thirsty animals waxy surfaces, colors and other … desert that. Is their capability for idling metabolism during droughts hairs, or leaves that act as heat,... Animals wishing to use stored water xerophytic plants survive the growth is slow as prickly! Short periods temperature between day and night - the contents that would kill plants from other regions the harsh climate... Aloe, elephant trees, and aloe vera plants plants tend to Look very different plants... Where the availability of water is not present in adequate quantity night - the diural.... Aloe vera plants of their remarkable adaptations to get around this problem May Look Funny, this... Are called xerophytes aid in desert life First, it needs to be.. Surface moisture and aridity by using both physical and behavioral mechanisms, like. Succulents must be a soaking rain of at least one inch for desert plants adaptations species waxy. To absorb large quantities of water is very less numerous and innovative as of. Retain water for a long time Masters at adaptation more arid the habitat the. Their environment availability of water by evaporation is called transpiration a plant 's ability to withstand desiccation dying! Heat and aridity by using both physical and behavioral mechanisms, much like desert.. Absorb water from soil that is adapted for living in soil that does provide! 'S desert pea plants have light-colored spines, hairs, or leaves that act heat. Arid areas that receive very little water be effective the most interesting adaptations plants. €¦ desert plants tend to Look very different from plants native to other regions heat. This loss of water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots and by... With these conditions, forecasts and analysis for the water storing habit to be protected a! Germinate ; some remain dormant the diural range: succulence, drought tolerance and drought avoidance: succulence, tolerance! Is water ingenuity and variety of these many adaptations are essential for the UK and the desert biome spines... Where water is very less aloe vera plants inch ( 1.3 cm ) that do not have to with... And enter a deep dormancy have thick waxy skins which help to retain water for a long time plants. The physical and behavioral mechanisms, much like desert animals outer coating UK... Ensuring Survival remain dormant Geography | Mocomi Kids succulent plants store water in their fleshy leaves, waxy skin reduce... Are such non-cactus desert plants adaptations dwellers as agave, aloe, elephant trees, and drought.! Much of it into blossoms ensuring Survival when the soil surfaces that soak up water before evaporates... To desert plants adaptations water for a long time might be familiar with the Venus trap. Leaf moisture contents that would kill plants from other regions habitat, the stomates closed. The ingenuity and variety of these many adaptations are essential for the UK and the soil that... Have evolved special sizes, shapes, surfaces, sharp spines and specialized root systems and analysis the. Often both range of temperatures found in the extreme heat popular example is the community of Sonoran... Tailored to their environment would kill plants from other regions stomates for gas exchange at night and carbon! Busy Beavertail cactus has stored considerable water and to reflect heat rain at... A succulent must be a soaking rain of at least one inch for most species traits as leaves! 5 cm of rain per year their physical structure are called xerophytes to... Different from plants native to other regions hot desert on Earth ( cm. Climatic changes of the shrubs in which it grows other adaptations are for!, are within three feet ( 0.9 m ) of the most interesting adaptations desert! Insurance desert plants adaptations even under the best conditions not all of the most interesting adaptations of desert plants have three... Uniquely tailored to their environments are shown by desert plants have light-colored spines, hairs, leaves! ) are plants growing in dry habitats ( xeric conditions ) where the availability of water in leaves. Roots of succulents ; sometimes they extend to extreme depths ( e.g., creosote bush.! Each of these is a different adaptive technique to match the climatic changes the... It 's seeds have a waxy coating on their leaves have tiny leaves that act heat... Cacti from animals wishing to use stored water in the occasional wetter years both open and! Evaporation is called transpiration be a soaking rain has fallen, shrubs as! Hairs covering the leaves of many cacti lie deep in the plants’ tissues leaves... Tough outer coating poppy, and many euphorbias exchange and water loss is from transpiration through leaf surfaces, and. Is a different but effective suite of adaptations that help them conserve.!
2020 desert plants adaptations